Purists decry the loss of the "mother tongue," advocating vigilance and "correctness," yet the "deterioration" of Puerto Rican Spanish through English "interference" has been exaggerated.
Puerto Ricans in the United States have developed a linguistic repertoire that involves mixing English and Spanish in everyday talk.
The influence of Taíno is evident in descriptions of material objects ("hammock" and "tobacco"), natural phenomena ("hurricane"), place names and colloquialisms.
However, Africans gave Puerto Rican Spanish defining nuances.
The nineteenth century also brought Corsican, French, German, Lebanese, Scottish, Italian, Irish, English, and American immigration. Many Dominicans immigrated in search of economic opportunities; some use Puerto Rico as a port of entry into the United States.